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The present city of Hisar, one of the important cities of North India, is located
at 2905’5”north latitude and 75045’55” east longitudes. It is situated one hundred
sixty four kilometers west to Delhi on the National Highway number ten.
The city of Hisar was founded by a Muslim ruler, Firozshah Tughlaq in 1354 A.D.
‘Hisar’ is an Arabic word which means ‘Fort’. The city, which we know today as ‘Hisar’,
was originally called ‘Hisar Firoza (also Hisar-e-Firoza) or in other words the
‘Fort of Firoz’. But as the days rolled by, the very word ‘Firoza’ was dropped from
its original name.
It was in these lands that the very first evidence of the presence of man was discovered
with the excavation of Agroha, Banawali and Kunal. All of these were the pre-Harappan
settlements, bringing for us the very first images of pre-Historic times. The presence
of the pillar in Hisar fort belonging to the time of Emperor Ashoka (234 A.D.) originally
from Agroha, the discovery of coins of the Kushan Kings tells tales of ancient India.
The construction work of the Hisar city was started in the year 1354 A.D. under
the personal supervision of Firozshah himself who stayed here for a sufficient time.
The boundary wall of Hisar Firoza was built up of stones brought from the hills
of Narsai. The Fort city was also surrounded by big ditch dug round the wall. A
large and deep tank was constructed inside the fort, and the water used to replenish
the ditch. Inside the fort a fine palace, having a complex of different buildings
was built. Well laid out gardens added to the beauty of the palace. The initial
stage of the city, it was reported, was completed after the incessant work of two
and a half years.
The nobles and Amirs were also directed by the Sultan to get the residences built
here. The buildings were constructed with lime and burnt bricks. The fort-city had
four gates which were subsequently named as the Delhi Gate and Mori Gate to the
east, the Nagori Gate to the south and Talaqi Gate to the west.
While constructing the palace, popularly known as ‘Gujari Mahal’ for his beloved,
Firozshah also built a new city around it. The Gujari Mahal still stands in its
austere majesty. This palace is a complex of different buildings, including the
royal residence of the sultan Firozshah, Shahi Darwaza, Diwan-e-Aam, Baradari with
three tehkhanas, a Hamam, a Mosque and a Pillar. The style of architecture of the
Gujari Mahal is dignified. The palace has beautifully carved stone pillars.
It is true that most of the materials used for the constructing the Gujari Mahal
complex was of Hindu or Jain temples, but there is nothing unusual about it because
the conquerors would often do like that. It is thus a routine practice of history.
In 1408 Hisar felt into the hands of the rebels, but was recovered by the royal
army under the Emperor Mahmud Tughlaq in person. In 1411 the tract of Hansi came
into the hands of Khizar Khan, and he ascended to the throne of Delhi in 1414 as
the first Sultan of Sayyad Dynasty. In 1420 the fief of Hisar was conferred on Mahmud
Hassan as reward for good services. During the feeble dynasty of the Lodhis (1451-1526)
Hisar rather Haryana continued to form a parts of Haryana, was granted as a fief
to Muhabbat Khan in the reign of Bahlol Lodi (1451-89)
When Babur invaded India in the 1524-26, Hisar was an important strategic center
of Ibrahim Lodi’s empire. Before the battle of Panipat in 1526, on reaching the
Ghaggar, Babur learnt that the troops from Hisar, led by Hamid Khan, were advancing
towards him. He then dispatched prince Humayun with a sufficient number of army
who succeeded in defeating the enemy. Babur handed over the city of Hisar to Humayun
as a reward for his success in his first military expedition. Humayun ruled over
India twice first from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. During his first
reign a mosque known as Jama Masjid was built here by Amir Muhammad in 1535.
During Akbar’s reign (1556-1605) Hisar became once more a place of considerable
importance. It was made the headquarters of the revenue Division known as sirkar.
As some of Mughal Princes who were attached with Hisar, subsequently became the
Emperors. The city of Hisar then known in the history of India as the Duke of Wellington
of Mughal Era.
The last noteworthy actor in the history of the tract of Hisar before the advent
of the British power was George Thomas (1756-1802). He was an independent ruler
of the tract of Haryana, including Hisar, from 1797m to 1802. The Jahaz Pul and
the Jahaz Kothi situated to the east of the city of Hisar, still remind the great
Irish adventurer. Thomas used the Jahaz Kothi, which was once a Jain temple and
afterwards converted into a mosque, as a residence.
It gained importance in early sixties when Agriculture University was setup as an
extension of the Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. Ever since, the Government
‘s positive policies have played a vital role in the economic development of the
city. The industrial policy of the Government has attracted large number of entrepreneurs
and has resulted into the industrialization in and around the city.
Location and Situation
Hisar city is one of the important and fast growing urban centers of Haryana. It
has grown to a vital position on the urban map of Haryana. It has come up because
of location factors. Its location is such that for any development away from the
G.T. Road Hisar draws the attention.
The city is catering to the needs of not only the population of the district but
also to the population of adjoining areas of Rajasthan and Punjab. People from Punjab
and Rajasthan come here for medical treatment, for the purchase of good quality
seeds, cows, buffaloes, bullocks and sheep etc. and also to get good education.
At present Hisar district consists of four tehsils and three Sub-tehsils. The tehsils
are Hisar, Hansi, Narnaund and Adampur and sub tehsils are Barwala, Uklana and Bass.
Hisar is a divisional headquarter of the Divisional Commissioner and also the headquarter
of Police Range. It is also a battalion Headquarters of B.S.F. 3rd Bn. H.A.P. and
commando force. In order to bring under the roof of all the departments a five storied
building of District Administrative Complex has been completed and offices shifted
in 1980. It adjoins the new Judiciary Complex, which is also made functional. This
administrative and judiciary complex is largest in Haryana, at a district headquarters
may be one of the largest in the country.
(1)ANCIENT MOUND AGROHA (Centrally protected)
22 Km. from Hisar on Hisar-Fazilka road
The excavations at Agroha have brought to light the antiquities from the 3rd-4th
century B.C to 13th -14th century A.D Some of the structures like defense wall,
shrines cells unearthed here, are of great historic significance, The residential
houses seen here, are rectangular in plan, having east-west orientation. About seven
thousand antiquities have been recovered during the excavations, These includes
stone sculptures, terracotta sealing, iron and copper implements, beads of semi-precious
stone, shell, glass and Terri cotta. A number of coins and sculptures including
terracotta objects have also been found from this site.
(2) JAHAJ KOTHI (State protected)
George Thomas a native of Ireland and uncrowned ruler of the territory between Sirsa
and Rohtak got this monument built for his residence. Owing its isolated position
it appears like a ship in the ocean and thereby won the name Jahaj Kothi.It might
have also got its name due to distortion of the word George to Jahaj over thr years
by the locals. After the defeat of George by the Britishers, James Kothi for some
time before the construction of his residential Palace at Hansi.
(3) ANCIENT GUMBAD (State protected)
Government Collage Complex,Hisar town
This monument is the tomb of Pranpir Badshah (belonging to the early 14th Century
A.D) the spiritual teacher of Sher Bahlol or Dana Sher. He was a great Sufi Saint
and Prophesid that Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq would become the king of Delhi.
(4) BARSI GATE (Centrally protected)
At Hansi, 26 Km east of Hisar on Hisar-Delhi road
The majestic Barsi Gate standing amidst the bazar of Hansi town was the main entrance
to the ancient fort of Hansi.Even today, it is an imposing gate of the outer defense
wall of the Hansi Fort. A Persian epigraph inscribed above the doorway records the
date of its contructions (in A.H) which corresponds to the year 1304-1305 A.D
(5) FORT OF PRITHVI RAJ (Centrally protected)
The fort known as Prithvi Raj-Ka-Qila has completely been converted into a mound
except for a few monuments of pre-Mughal period that can be seen here. A long pillared
structure with a flat roof is situated on the top of the mound. It is called Baradari.Some
time back 57 bronze images of Jain Tirthankaras were recovered from this site.
(6) DURGAH CHAR QUTAB (State protected)
West of the town has a group of monuments with in the tomb complex known as Char-Qutabs,
Jamal-ud-Din Hansi (1187-1261 AD) Burhan-ud-Din (1261-1300 A.D) Qutab-ud-Din Manuwar
(1300-1303) and Nur-ud-Din (1325-1397 A.D) were the celebrated Sufi Saints of their
times and designated as Qutabs. This monuments celebrates the last testing place
of these saints.The dargah has been subjected to many changes. The tomb is connected
to a small mosque.It is said that it is built at the place where Baba Farid used
to meditate and offer prayers. One of the most imposing edifices of this structure
is the large Mosque in the northen enclosure which was constructed by Firoz Shah
Tuglaq. Other important monuments in the complex are the tomb of Mir Tijarah who
was the chief purveyor (Tajarah) of Sultan Hamid –ud-Din of Hansi.Mir Ali or Alam
was a disciple of Jamal-ud-Din and is said to have built the tomb for his teacher.
But he himself was entombed here due to his early demise.Other monuments in the
complex are the twin tombs of Begum Skinner, four chhatries Known as Char Diwan
and Ek Diwan.
Very hot summers and very cold winters. The maximum day temperature during the summer
varies between 40 to 46 degree Celsius. During winter its ranges between 1.5 degree
to 4 degree Celsius. The winds are strong and frequent during May to July. Normally
the South Westerly current of summer monsoon brings the rains during July to September
period. Intermittent dust storms are also common.
Administrative set-up of District Hisar
Hisar continued to be the District Headquarters of the largest District in the state
till its reorganization; some parts of it were transferred to Jind in 1966 when
Jind was made a new District. Tehsil Bhiwani and Loharu estate were transferred
to Bhiwani District when Bhiwani was carved out in 1974. It was further bifurcated
when Sirsa become a new district entirely out of Hisar District. Now Fatehabad has
been carved out of this district.